Hair: he epidermis (outer layer of the human skin) is quickly shed in the course of decomposition, and body hair is lost. A few clumps of hair were found around the body, indicating that Ötzi had dark, medium-long hair which he wore loose. Traces of arsenic were found in his hair, leading to the conclusion that Ötzi was sometimes present where metal ores were being smelted.
Nails: Ötzi’s fingernails and toenails fell off as he decomposed. During excavations, one fingernail and two toenails were retrieved. Horizontal grooves, or Beau’s lines, were observed on the fingernail – an indication of great physical stress.
Parasites and pathogens: Two human fleas were found in Ötzi’s clothing. Scientists also found the oldest evidence of borreliosis, or Lyme Disease, an infectious disease transmitted by ticks, in Ötzi’s DNA. The eggs of whipworm, an irritating intestinal parasite, were found in his digestive tract.